AFRICA GOLD TRADE. AFRICA GOLD


Africa gold trade. Gold rate in usa today.



Africa Gold Trade





africa gold trade






    africa
  • (african) of or relating to the nations of Africa or their peoples; "African languages"

  • Africa is the world's second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. At about 30.2 million km? (11.7 million sq mi) including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of the Earth's total surface area and 20.4% of the total land area.Sayre, April Pulley.

  • The second largest continent (11.62 million square miles; 30.1 million sq km), a southward projection of the Old World landmass divided roughly in half by the equator and surrounded by sea except where the Isthmus of Suez joins it to Asia

  • the second largest continent; located to the south of Europe and bordered to the west by the South Atlantic and to the east by the Indian Ocean





    trade
  • (esp. of shares or currency) Be bought and sold at a specified price

  • engage in the trade of; "he is merchandising telephone sets"

  • Buy and sell goods and services

  • Buy or sell (a particular item or product)

  • the commercial exchange (buying and selling on domestic or international markets) of goods and services; "Venice was an important center of trade with the East"; "they are accused of conspiring to constrain trade"

  • the skilled practice of a practical occupation; "he learned his trade as an apprentice"





    gold
  • A deep lustrous yellow or yellow-brown color

  • A yellow precious metal, the chemical element of atomic number 79, valued esp. for use in jewelry and decoration, and to guarantee the value of currencies

  • coins made of gold

  • An alloy of this

  • amber: a deep yellow color; "an amber light illuminated the room"; "he admired the gold of her hair"

  • made from or covered with gold; "gold coins"; "the gold dome of the Capitol"; "the golden calf"; "gilded icons"











africa gold trade - Mali: Land




Mali: Land of Gold and Glory


Mali: Land of Gold and Glory



Introduce elementary and middle school students to the ancient African empire of Mali, and teach them about an amazing history--and about themselves. Mali, one of the most glorious but least known civilizations of the world, comes to life through vivid color photographs, timelines, maps...and the legends of the griots, or storytellers, who’ve preserved the past of Mali for millennia, handing down stories of brave kings from generation to generation.
The book is an introduction to an astonishing, little-known history, and it’s a vital, refreshing educational tool, packed with suggestions for games and activities that reinforce the history lessons. For instance, readers will learn how to play the "Trading Game," a life-or-death activity for the people who once practiced it. MALI: LAND OF GOLD AND GLORY is an invaluable entree into a place and a time that deserve more attention, especially among young people. "African-Americans were not dropped out of the sky with slavery as their beginning," said Andrew Prophett, the esteemed educator responsible for the development of Virginia’s new innovative elementary-level Mali curriculum. "That is not history."
Mali IS history, a civilization worthy of being studied along with those of Rome, Greece, Egypt, China, and India. MALI: Land of Gold and Glory makes that possible, bringing to life "a land of grand palaces and gold." As the narrator-griot sings in the book. "It was called the Bright Country and that was the way it was—a bright and shining place."










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Meroe, Sudan




Meroe, Sudan





The site of the city of Meroe is marked by more than two hundred pyramids in three groups, of which many are in ruins. They are identified as Nubian pyramids because of their distinctive shape and proportions. Meroe was the southern capital of the Kushite Kingdom, or Napata/Meroitic Kingdom, that spanned the period c. 800 BC - c. 350 AD. Meroe was the base of a flourishing kingdom whose wealth was due to strong iron industry, plus an international trade involving India and China.

At the time, iron was one of the most researched metals worldwide, and Meroitic metalworkers were among the best in the world. Meroe also exported textiles and jewelry. Their textiles were based on cotton and working on this product reached its highest achievement in Nubia around 400 BC. Furthermore, Nubia was very rich in gold. Trade in "exotic" animals from farther south in Africa was another feature of their economy. It is possible that the Egyptian word for gold, nub, was the source of name of Nubia.
Modern archaeology in Sudan has been impossible because of the on-going civil war. In the nineteenth century, after the ruins at Meroe had been described by several European travellers, some treasure-hunting excavations were executed on a small scale in 1834 by Giuseppe Ferlini, who discovered (or professed to discover) various antiquities, chiefly in the form of jewelry, now in the museums of Berlin and Munich.

The ruins were examined more carefully in 1844 by Karl Richard Lepsius, who brought many plans, sketches, and copies, besides actual antiquities, to Berlin. Further excavations were carried on by E. A. Wallis Budge in the years 1902 and 1905, the results of which are recorded in his work, The Egyptian Sudan: its History and Monuments (London, 1907). Troops were furnished by Sir Reginald Wingate, governor of the Sudan, who made paths to and between the pyramids, and sank shafts.

It was found that the pyramids regularly were built over sepulchral chambers, containing the remains of bodies either burned or buried without being mummified. The most interesting objects found were the reliefs on the chapel walls, already described by Lepsius, and containing the names and representations of their queens, Candaces or the Nubian Kentakes, some kings, and with some chapters of the Book of the Dead; some stelae with inscriptions in the Meroitic language, and some vessels of metal and earthenware. The best of the reliefs were taken down stone by stone in 1905, and set up partly in the British Museum and partly in the museum at Khartoum.

In 1910, in consequence of a report by Archibald Sayce, excavations were commenced in the mounds of the town and the necropolis by J. Garstang on behalf of the University of Liverpool, and the ruins of a palace and several temples built by the Meroite rulers were discovered.













Tuareg: Blue Men of the Desert




Tuareg: Blue Men of the Desert





Who are the Tuareg?

Known by many names, Tuareg is Arabic for ‘abandoned by God’ as these people were resistant to conversion to Islam but in their indigenous language, the people call themselves the Imohag (Imouhar, Imuhagh), meaning ‘free men’. To some, they are known as the ‘Blue Men of the Sahara’ based on the indigo color of the cloth in the robes and veils they wear.

The origin of the Tuareg is uncertain but they are thought to be of Berber descent although today the term is used to identify numerous diverse groups of people of the Sahara Desert who share a common language and culture that is nomadic and pastoralist. Their presence was recorded as early as the 5th century BC by Herodotus when the Tuareg were already known for organizing caravans across the Sahara Desert. For over two millennia, they have controlled five trans-Saharan routes which have connected northern Africa (and thereby Europe) with sub-Saharan Africa. Gold, ivory, cola nuts, salt and slaves moved from south to north to be traded for copper and ceramics. The trans-Saharan trade routes still exist today but are now limited to the salt caravans.

Tuareg art is in the form of jewelry, leather, saddles and swords. Of interest, in Tuareg culture, it is men, rather than women, who veil themselves. The veil is donned upon reaching manhood and is considered a symbol of male identity; it is also thought to protect the wearer from evil spirits.

Photograph taken in the Sahara Desert, outside Timbuktu, Mali.










africa gold trade








africa gold trade




Diamonds, Gold, and War: The British, the Boers, and the Making of South Africa






Southern Africa was once regarded as a worthless jumble of British colonies, Boer republics, and African chiefdoms, a troublesome region of little interest to the outside world. But then prospectors chanced first upon the world's richest deposits of diamonds, and then upon its richest deposits of gold. What followed was a titanic struggle between the British and the Boers for control of the land, culminating in the costliest, bloodiest, and most humiliating war that Britain had waged in nearly a century, and in the devastation of the Boer republics.
Martin Meredith's magisterial account of those years portrays the great wealth and raw power, the deceit, corruption, and racism that lay behind Britain's empire-building in southern Africa. Based on significant new research and filled with atmospheric detail, it focuses on the fascinating rivalry between diamond titan Cecil Rhodes and Paul Kruger, the Boer leader whose only education was the Bible, who believed the earth was flat, yet who defied Britain's prime ministers and generals for nearly a quarter of a century. Diamonds, Gold and War makes palpable the cost of western greed to Africa's native peoples, and explains the rise of the virulent Afrikaner nationalism that eventually took hold in South Africa, with repercussions lasting nearly a century.










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